Be an Active Agent of Change: Opportunity and Representation Matters

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The Black Lives Matter movement and recent protests have demanded American citizens to grapple with the sad truth about our history, America was developed by, but not for, Black Americans and people of color. The process of learning about the gruesome truth of American history can be overwhelming for some, but we ask you to do the work. Some people take to social media, like Twitter and Instagram, to engage in short and concise bits of information. Some people follow up with what they have learned by reading books or listening to podcasts, others prefer to watch documentaries and/or films that draw on the Black experience, both past, and present. With the recent death of many Black men, women, and non-binary people, members of the entertainment industry have recognized and asserted how film and cinema are vehicles for change and that opportunities to view and share Black stories and narratives are imperative in the fight of justice and equality.

In light of this, Warner Brothers created an opportunity for viewers to watch the film, Just Mercy,[1] for free on streaming services like Amazon.[2] Released on Christmas day of 2019, Just Mercy starring Michael B. Jordan and Jamie Foxx gives an account of Civil Rights champion Bryan Stevenson (played by Mr. Jordan) who graduated from Harvard Law in 1989. Upon graduation, Stevenson moves to Alabama where he, alongside Eva Ansley, found the Equal Justice Initiative (EJI).[3] EJI is a human rights organization that provides legal representation to people who were wrongfully incarcerated, people who do not have effective legal counsel, people who were denied a fair trial, and EJI provides re-entry assistance to formerly incarcerated people.[4] The film provides an account of Walter “Johnny D.” McMillian (played by Mr. Foxx) who was falsely accused of the murder of Ronda Morrison by racist law enforcement and put on death row. This film sheds light on systemic racism and the hyper-criminalization of Black people. Moreover, the film highlights the various racial injustices and inequalities Black people face, not only in the deep south but around the country.

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When asked about his experience starring in and co-producing this film, Michael B. Jordan replied that he “felt a sense of responsibility” in telling this history.[5] This feeling of ‘responsibility’ is what drives social change and is what those in the entertainment industry need to harness and use in order to have a meaningful impact. For example, Mr. Jordan’s efforts do not end at starring in this film and sharing it with the world. As of June 22, 2020, Mr. Jordan has partnered with Endeavor Impact and an HBCU in Los Angeles to create the Summer Series Fellowship Program to give “impact-minded individuals from all backgrounds the opportunity to learn about working and succeeding in the sports, entertainment and fashion industries [specifically through] education, personal development, social impact, and activism.”[6] As such, Mr. Jordan is using his celebrity to diversify the makeup of the entertainment industry. Not only that, but he is providing opportunities for those who are impact-minded with a network, to ensure that Black stories, people of color’s stories, and socially impactful stories will be represented in the entertainment industry.

We call on you, members of the entertainment industry and community, to share Black stories.

We call on you, members of the entertainment industry and community, to provide socially impactful opportunities.

We call on you, members of the entertainment industry and community, to be active agents of change.

[1] Just Mercy (Warner Brothers 2019).

[2] Claire Shaffer, Warner Bros. Makes ‘Just Mercy’ Free to Stream to Educate Viewers on Systemic Racism, Rolling Stone (Jun. 2, 2020), https://www.rollingstone.com/movies/movie-news/warner-bros-just-mercy-george-floyd-protests-1009103/.

[3] Equal Justice Initiative, https://eji.org/ (last visited Jun. 22, 2020).

[4] Id.

[5] Brent Lang, Could Michael B. Jordan and Jamie Foxx’s ‘Just Mercy’ Set a New Standard for Inclusion?, Variety(Oct. 22,2019), https://variety.com/video/michael-b-jordan-just-mercy-sense-of-responsibility/.

[6] Endeavor Impact Summer Series, Endeavor Impact, https://endeavorimpact.com/summerseries/ (last visited Jun. 22, 2020).

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Eryn L. Pollard, is a second-year law student at Notre Dame Law School and is the secretary of the Black Law Students Association

 

Modern Day Blackface?

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The Entertainment Industry and its respective players are increasingly becoming more aware of its responsibility to share Black stories, provide opportunities and represent Black voices both in front of and behind the camera (this includes actors, directors, storytellers, writers, etc.). As the Black Lives Matter Movement and recent protests have forced many Americans to confront their privilege and how they too are part of the system that suppresses people of color, members of the entertainment community have released statements, shared photos, and expressed the ways in which they are “Muted but Listening”.

Many members of the movement have called out for allies to be active participants in battling systemic racism and discrimination which can happen in various ways. For some, it is having tough and uncomfortable conversations while confronting their own privilege[1], for others, it has been quitting career opportunities. For example, both Kristen Bell and Jenny Slate have quit their mixed-race character roles on television animated series, Central Park and Big Mouth. [2]Slate released a statement on Instagram explaining her initial reasoning for accepting the role, but an ultimate reflection that led her to quit the job. Slate explains, similar to “Missy”, Slate is also Jewish and White, “But “Missy” is also Black, and Black characters on an animated show should be played by Black people. I acknowledge how my original reasoning was flawed, that it existed as an example of white supremacy [. . .] I was engaging in an act of erasure of Black people.”[3]Bell also released a statement on Instagram explaining that “This is a time to acknowledge our acts of complicity. Here is one of mine. Playing the character of Molly on Central Park shows a lack of awareness of my pervasive privilege. Casting a mixed-race character with a white actress undermines the specificity of the mixed-race and Black American experience.”[4]

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Entertainers taking responsibility for their “acts of complicity” as Bell states is a great first step. A generative analysis of how historically the entertainment industry has used Blackface until it was no longer socially acceptable, given Black parts to non-people of color, begs the question, ‘Is giving animated characters with mixed raced backgrounds to White entertainers a modern form of Blackface?’. There is no clear answer to this question. Dating back to the 1800s, minstrel shows became very popular, spearheaded by playwright and actor Thomas Dartmouth Rice, embodying a racist idea of an over-exaggerated character of a Black man which he named “Jim Crow”. [5] Rice and minstrel shows gained traction in the 1820s when his song “Jump Jim Crow” became very popular.[6] Although he was not the first actor to use Blackface in his skits, his representations specifically were problematic as he became very famous and toured all over America and Europe. The stereotypes set by minstrel shows of Black people has influenced how people perceive Black people and people of color and in the film industry created culturally insensitive and narrow ideas of characters Black people could play. For example, the 1975 film “Mandingo”[7] or fan outrage when in 2012 the character “Ruth” was cast as a Black actor for the film the Hunger Games.[8]

A recent UCLA research study analyzing the diversity of Hollywood reports that “Whites remained overrepresented among all top film roles in 2017, claiming 77 percent of the roles [. . .] with Black Americans at 9 percent and Latinos at 5.2 percent.”[9] Furthermore, when examining the percentage of episodes directed by minorities, the report found that “For 41 percent of broadcast scripted shows form 2016-2017 season, people of color directed less than 11 percent of the episodes.”[10] With more entertainers like voice actor Mike Henry giving up his 20-year role as Cleveland on Family Guy[11] noting “persons of color should play characters of color”, to the entire Simpson Producer team releasing a statement that“Moving forward, The Simpsons will no longer have white actors voice non-white characters”[12], it seems that Black people and people of color are being given more opportunities to play the characters that are drawing on Black experiences, ultimately creating an industry that is more authentic in its storytelling. After analyzing how Black people and people of color have been historically represented and misrepresented in the media and entertainment industry, as well as the lack of opportunity and limited roles for Black entertainers both on and off the screen, it is evident that giving animated characters with mixed raced backgrounds to White entertainers is extremely problematic. Now, back to the original question posited in this article, ‘Is giving animated characters with mixed raced backgrounds to White entertainers a modern form of Blackface?’.

[1] Emmanuel Acho, Uncomfortable Conversations with a Black Man – Episode 2 with Matthew McConaughey, YouTube (June 10, 2020), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CwiY4i8xWIc&t=147s.

[2] Hannah J. Davies, Recasting Kristen Ball and Jenny Slate’s Black voice riles is an afterthought – and an opportunity, The Guardian (June 25, 2020),  https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2020/jun/25/jenny-slate-kristen-bell-recasting-black-tv-voice-roles-is-an-afterthought-opportunity.

[3] Jenny Slate (@jennyslate), Instagram, https://www.instagram.com/p/CB1JlSqFXT8/?igshid=1etetjjdsq24p (last visited July 1, 2020).

[4] Kristen Bell (@kristenanniebell), Instagram, https://www.instagram.com/p/CB1coy7JkDG/ (last visited July 1, 2020).

[5] The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, Thomas Dartmouth Rice – American entertainer, Britannica (May 16, 2020), https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Dartmouth-Rice (last visited July 1, 2020).

[6] Id.

[7] Keertana Sastry, SHAME ON HOLLYWOOD: These Are The Most Racist Films Of All Time, Business Insider  (June 1, 2012), https://www.businessinsider.com/the-most-racist-films-of-all-time-2012-5#2-mandingo-1975-is-just-plain-crazy-20.

[8] Anna Holmes, White Until Proven Black: Imagining Race in Hunger Games, The New Yorker (Mar. 30, 2012), https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/white-until-proven-black-imagining-race-in-hunger-games.

[9] UCLA College Social Sciences, Hollywood Diversity Report 2019 (2019), https://socialsciences.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/UCLA-Hollywood-Diversity-Report-2019-2-21-2019.pdf.

[10] Id at 30. applewebdata://66953281-0766-4D52-917B-4D21C41DD59E#_ftn10

[11] Mike Henry (@mikehenrybro), Twitter (June 26, 2020), https://twitter.com/mikehenrybro/status/1276631712949317639?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1276631712949317639%7Ctwgr%5E&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.rollingstone.com%2Ftv%2Ftv-news%2Ffamily-guy-actor-cleveland-the-simpsons-1021473%2F.

[12] Thomson Reuters, The Simpsons ditches using white voices for characters of colour, CBC (June 27, 2020), https://www.cbc.ca/news/entertainment/simpsons-character-voices-1.5630049

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Eryn L. Pollard, is a second-year law student at Notre Dame Law School and is the secretary of the Black Law Students Association.

Black Women in the Film Industry

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No other industry in America has been touched by so many diverse and talented trailblazers as the film industry. Although “Classic Hollywood” was primarily dominated by white male producers, directors, and actors, countless black women are among the most profound and courageous pioneers responsible for the film today.[1] Women such as Madeline Anderson, Julie Dash, Kathleen Collins, and Cheryl Dunye have all gone unrecognized or have been underappreciated by the masses for decades. The #MeToo movement and Black Lives Matter protests fighting for gender and racial equality across the board, however, are likely to bring these women and their works into a well-deserved spotlight.

One of the most “provocative, humorous, and important filmmakers of our time” is Cheryl Dunye, who is best known for her mixture of narrative and documentary techniques as seen in one of her earliest works, “Watermelon Woman.”[2] As a queer black woman, Dunye focuses her films on issues of race, sexuality, and identity all of which have played major roles in her own personal journey.[3] Equally as important to Dunye, however, are the works of the women who came before her, like Kathleen Collins, Madeline Anderson, and Julie Dash. Kathleen Collins, best known for her work, “Losing Ground,” was an activist during the Civil Rights Movement who went on to become a playwright and filmmaker, and eventually became the first black woman to direct a feature-length drama in the U.S.[4] Collins focused on issues of marital malaise, male dominance and impotence, and freedom of expression and intellectual pursuit.[5] Similarly, Madeline Anderson– the first black woman to direct a documentary film– began filming in the 1950s, a time when it was particularly difficult to be anything in Hollywood but a white man.[6] But Anderson was determined to make it in the film as she quickly grew weary of seeing her people only depicted as “savages and servants”; she wanted to show another side of Black History.[7] Then there is also Julie Dash, best known for her 1991 film “Daughters of the Dust” and who was the first black woman to direct a theatrically-released feature-length film in the U.S.[8] Dash’s “Daughters of the Dust” was added to the Library of Congress in 2004, and received a restoration in 2016 causing many to discover the film for the first time. The film was even cited as an inspiration for Beyoncé’s song “Lemonade” and several other filmmakers, like Dunye, throughout the years.[9]

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Most black women filmmakers have consistently chosen a documentary style of film that highlights their own stories and adds a “realness dimension” that is so essential to their works.[10] Thus, women like Dunye, Anderson, Collins, and Dash demonstrate how black women have defiantly created their films despite countless obstacles and restrictions, and, ultimately, have impacted the film industry since the mid-1900s.[11] This is because the women mentioned above, and other black women filmmakers, are all connected in a very important way: they insist the film industry be representative of black lives and black struggle.[12]

[1] https://sffilm.org/madeline-anderson-african-american-trailblazer/

[2] http://cheryldunye.com/services

[3] https://www.eai.org/artists/cheryl-dunye/biography

[4] http://kathleencollins.org/about

[5] Id.

[6] https://nmaahc.si.edu/blog-post/filmmaker-madeline-anderson

[7] https://sffilm.org/madeline-anderson-african-american-trailblazer/

[8] https://www.thehistorymakers.org/biography/julie-dash-41

[9] https://www.indiewire.com/2019/01/julie-dash-angela-davis-biopic-lionsgate-1202039205/

[10] https://hyperallergic.com/355946/rewriting-film-history-with-two-decades-of-black-womens-cinema/

[11] https://www.nybooks.com/daily/2020/02/29/kathleen-collinss-ecstatic-self-discovery/

[12] https://hyperallergic.com/355946/rewriting-film-history-with-two-decades-of-black-womens-cinema/

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Megan Kern is a second-year law student at Case Western Reserve University School of Law in Cleveland, Ohio.

“Karen” and the Problematic Consequences Toward Black Folks and People of Color

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Microaggressions, such as disapproving looks and chastising remarks, are of the most common types of aggression when it comes to racism in America today.[1] Most of this microaggression stems from racial etiquette that dates back to the slavery days and Jim Crow laws that “dictated how black people should behave and interact with white people.”[2] Recently, many micro-aggressors have been filmed and posted online, creating a new trend on social media that challenges this blatantly racist and discriminatory conduct. A majority of these posts describe the aggressor as a “Karen” (or “Connor” for male aggressors), a descriptor that mainstream social media immediately acknowledges as an “entitled white woman.”[3]

Before “Karen” became the well-known meme that it is, originally the “Karen” character was identified by their “speak to the manager haircut”– a side-swept bob with spikey short hair in the back.[4] Now, the “Karen” meme is largely used to identify and describe middle-aged white women who commit racist acts, specifically, unjustly calling the police on Black Americans and other people of color.[5] Amy Cooper earned the name “Karen” when she called the police on a black man in Central Park who had asked her to put her dog back on its leash (a requirement of the park).[6] “Karen” however, is only one of many “cop caller nicknames” that have graced the internet since 2018. For example, “Barbecue Becky” earned her nickname after calling the police on black men using a charcoal grill in a public park.[7] Then there is “Permit Patty” and “Corner store Caroline,” who similarly called the police on people of color for unjust reasons.[8]

At first, the filming of incidents like the ones mentioned above provides teachable moments about racism and discussions about what will and will not be tolerated in society today.[9] Unfortunately, like anything else, social media and “viral monikers” may do more harm than good.[10] According to journalist David Dennis Jr., “assigning nicknames to women who do nefarious things,” provides anonymity and “belittles what they’ve done.”[11] Furthermore, while the “Karen” reference increases the probability that a video will trend, it is actually more important that society remember the offenders’ real names in order to hold them accountable for their actions.[12]

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Of course, social media recognition is never the ultimate goal of a movement. Consequently, efforts have been made to dissuade and even prohibit such unjust calling of the police not only by the people posting these “Karen” videos but also by police departments and government officials.[13] While the police are legally liable to dispatch a car when they receive a call, police officers have begun to warn suspicious callers that “they could be charged with making a false police report if it happens again.”[14] Furthermore, Legislation inspired by “Karen” incidents is also being passed in New York, New Jersey, Minnesota, Oregon, Washington, and other regions in order to criminalize unjust police calls.[15] New York Governor Cuomo commented, “A false 911 call based on race should be classified as a hate crime in the state of New York.”[16] Based on this declaration, violators could face between one and five years in prison in accordance with New York state’s hate crime statute (meaning if the call was motivated by “a perception or belief about their race, color, national origin, ancestry, gender, religion, religious practice, age, disability or sexual orientation”).[17]

Social media has forced Americans to confront the uncomfortable reality that elitist and racist conduct, although perhaps less blatant than years passed, is still actively present even in the year 2020.[18] What’s more, these racial attitudes are so deeply ingrained in American society and politics that many aggressors are friends, family members, neighbors, and other seemingly innocent people, which makes it more difficult (and less likely) for bystanders to speak up against the aggressors. Social media, therefore, provides a platform for others to speak out against the “Karen’s” and “Connor’s” of the world. Ultimately, as showcased in the examples of legislation reform above, without social media these “Karen” stereotype incidents of microaggression may never have gained the recognition and attention that is required to combat all discrimination, micro, and macro, of people of color in America.[19]

[1] https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2018/07/18/bbq-becky-permit-patty-and-why-internet-shaming-white-people-who-police-black-people/793574002/

[2] Id.

[3] https://www.insider.com/karen-meme-origin-the-history-of-calling-women-karen-white-2020-5

[4] Id.

[5] Id.

[6] https://www.insider.com/karen-meme-origin-the-history-of-calling-women-karen-white-2020-5

[7] https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2018/07/18/bbq-becky-permit-patty-and-why-internet-shaming-white-people-who-police-black-people/793574002/

[8] Id.

[9] https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2018/07/18/bbq-becky-permit-patty-and-why-internet-shaming-white-people-who-police-black-people/793574002/

[10] https://www.insider.com/karen-meme-origin-the-history-of-calling-women-karen-white-2020-5

[11] Id.

[12] Id.

[13] https://www.insider.com/karen-meme-origin-the-history-of-calling-women-karen-white-2020-5

[14] https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2018/07/18/bbq-becky-permit-patty-and-why-internet-shaming-white-people-who-police-black-people/793574002/

[15] https://chicagodefender.com/charged-with-a-crime-of-karen-ing-the-amy-cooper-inspired-law-backed-by-governor-cuomo/

[16] https://www.bet.com/news/national/2020/06/09/amy-cooper-bill-new-york-governor-andrew-cuomo.html

[17] Id.

[18] https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2018/07/18/bbq-becky-permit-patty-and-why-internet-shaming-white-people-who-police-black-people/793574002/

[19] Id.

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Megan Kern is a second-year law student at Case Western Reserve University School of Law in Cleveland, Ohio.

Cancel Culture and the Black Lives Matter Movement: The Fine Line Between Social Change and Censorship in Entertainment

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In today’s world, there is little room for second chances. The public’s growing demand for accountability has led celebrities and public figures alike to be “canceled”, or rather, “culturally blocked from having a prominent public platform or career,”[1] for their problematic comments and actions. On one hand, the movement encourages positive social change by dissuading individuals in power from engaging in offensive behavior. On the other, however, cancel culture risks excessive censorship. After many have effectively had their voices silenced from being “canceled,” this modern trend begs the question of whether cancel culture has gone too far.[2]

As the Black Lives Matter movement continues to gain momentum, many have been, and continue to be “canceled” for their racist actions and comments. The entertainment industry has been especially affected, like many actors, executives, and reality television stars have been fired for racist behavior.[3] Additionally, racist content is being removed from various platforms. However, the industry’s promising strides towards contributing to a more inclusive and accepting culture has not been met without criticism. HBO Max notably caused controversy when it announced it would be removing “Gone With the Wind” from its library of films.[4]

The 1939 film tells the love story of Scarlett O’Hara and Rhett Butler in the midst of the American Civil War. The film has been long praised as “one of the most popular films ever made.”[5] In fact, the movie holds great historical significance, as it earned Hattie McDaniel an Oscar, making her the first ever African American to receive the award. Nevertheless, the film generates great disapproval for its portrayal of slavery. Although HBO Max noted that “Gone With the Wind” is a “product of its time,” it acknowledged that “these racist depictions [in the film] were wrong then and are wrong today.”[6] The platform ultimately announced that the movie would not return to the platform unless accompanied by a “discussion of its historical context and a denouncement of those very depictions.”[7]

The platform’s move came in response to an opinion article in the Los Angeles Times that demanded that HBO Max take “Gone With the Wind” “off [its] platform for now.”[8] In the opinion piece, John Ridley, the screenwriter of “12 Years a Slave,” wrote that the firm ignored the horrors of slavery and “perpetuate[d] some of the most painful stereotypes of people of color.”[9] He ultimately asked that the film be taken down from HBO Max for a respectful amount of time.

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When the platform ultimately complied with Ridley’s request, it faced criticism. Journalist Megyn Kelley responded by tweeting, “Are we going to pull all of the movies in which women are treated as sex objects too? Guess how many films we’ll have left? Where does this end??”[10] Others expressed concern that removing the film discredited Hattie McDaniel’s Oscar performance that represented a huge achievement for the African American community. On the other hand, stars like Queen Latifah supported the platform’s move, expressing “Let ‘Gone With the Wind’ be gone with the wind.”[11] In response to the controversy surrounding Hattie McDaniel’s performance being “canceled” as a consequence, she responded, “They didn’t even let her in the theater until right before she got that award.”[12] In fact, at the time, McDaniel was forced to sit separately from the rest of her “Gone With the Wind” cast due to racial segregation.

HBO has since confirmed that the film will return to its streaming platform, but with a discussion of its historical context and denouncement of its racist depictions. HBO Max follows in Disney Plus’s footsteps, who added disclaimers to several of its films that depict racist stereotypes, such as “Dumbo” and “Peter Pan.”[13] In fact the platform’s move was a great success, attracting ten million subscribers in just one day.[14] The disclaimer reads, “This Program is presented as originally created. It may contain outdated cultural depictions.”[15] However, many still feel that a disclaimer is not nearly enough.[16] Warner Brothers have added similar, more detailed disclaimers to its cartoons such as “Tom and Jerry.”[17]

On the flip side, The Paramount Network announced that its show “Cops”, which glorified police, will be canceled.[18] The show’s thirty-third season was expected to premiere on June 15. The cancelation comes as no surprise, as organizations like Color of Change have been campaigning to remove the show for years.[19] Following “Cops,” reality show “Live PD” was also canceled. In a statement made by A&E, the network expressed, “This is a critical time in our nation’s history and we have made the decision to cease production on ‘Live PD…Going forward, we will determine if there is a clear pathway to tell the stories of both the community and the police officers whose role it is to serve them. And with that, we will be meeting with community and civil rights leaders as well as police departments.”[20]

The truth of the matter is that the entertainment industry carries a history of films, television shows, and music filled with unfavorable notions: racism, sexism, and homophobia amongst others. The industry is now faced with a tough decision: to cancel or not to cancel? Should films with offensive themes be erased from history? Or should they remain as an educational tool as society moves forward? Where does the line get drawn between social justice and censorship? Such questions will continue to shape the path the entertainment industry will follow in the future.

[1] Aja Romano, Why We Can’t Stop Fighting about Cancel Culture?, VOX (Dec. 30, 2019, 12:40 PM), https://www.vox.com/culture/2019/12/30/20879720/what-is-cancel-culture-explained-history-debate.

[2] Sarah Hagi, Cancel Culture is Not Real – At Least Not in the Way People Think, Time (Nov. 21, 2019, 6:43 AM), https://time.com/5735403/cancel-culture-is-not-real/.

[3] Marissa Dellatto and Lauren Steussy, Celebrities Who Got Fired from Their TV Shows for Alleged Racism, New York Post (June 11, 2020, 10:27 AM), https://nypost.com/article/celebrities-who-got-fired-from-their-tv-shows-over-racism-claims/.

[4] Frank Pallotta, ‘Gone With the Wind’ Pulled from HBO Max Until it Can Return with ‘Historical Context’

[5] Id.

[6] Id.

[7] Id.

[8] John Ridley, Op-Ed: Hey, HBO, ‘Gone With the Wind’ Romanticizes the Horrors of Slavery. Take it Off Your Platform for Now, Los Angeles Times (June 8, 2020

[9] Id.

[10] Megyn Kelly (@megynkelly), Twitter (June 10, 2020, 3:57 AM).

[11] Roisin O’Connor, Queen Latifah Weighs in on Gone With the Wind Controversy: ‘Let it Be Gone’, Independent (June 17, 2020), https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/news/queen-latifah-gone-with-the-wind-hbo-max-streaming-removal-a9569861.html.

[12] Id.

[13] Mae Anderson, Disney Plus Adds Disclaimer About Racist Movie Stereotypes, ABC News (Nov. 14, 2019), https://abcnews.go.com/Technology/wireStory/disney-adds-disclaimer-racist-stereotypes-67020530.

[14] Id.

[15] Id.

[16] Sharareh Drury, Disney+ “Outdated Cultural Depictions” Disclaimer Raises Questions, Say Advocacy Groups, The Hollywood Reporter (Nov. 16, 2020), https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/disney-outdated-cultural-depictions-disclaimer-raises-questions-say-advocacy-groups-1255284.

[17] Id.

[18] Nicole Sperling, ‘Cops,’ Long-Running Reality Show That Glorified Police, Is Canceled, New York Times (June 9, 2020), https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/09/business/media/cops-canceled-paramount-tv-show.html.

[19] See id.

[20] Michael Schneider, ‘Live PD’: Inside A&E’s Swift Decision to Cancel the Show, and Whether it Will Ever Return, Variety (June 11, 2020), https://variety.com/2020/tv/news/live-pd-canceled-return-dan-abrams-1234632290/.

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Sabrina Fani is a second year student at Loyola Law School concentrating in Business and Entertainment Law.